The Different Skin Layers
Each layer contains connective tissue with collagen and fibers that provide the support and elasticity for skin’s flexibility and strength.
- Epidermis: The outermost part that contains skin cells, pigment (skin color) and proteins.
- Dermis: Provides nutrients for the epidermis. It is the center or middle part that contains blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles and oil glands.
- Subcutaneous: The layer that contains sweat glands, certain hair follicles, blood vessels and fatty cells
During the aging process, glands produce less oil. Oil production in women begins to gradually decrease after menopause. A decrease in the amount of oil provided to the skin can make it harder to keep the skin moist, resulting in dryness, itchiness, and irritation.
The subcutaneous fat layer also begins to thin as aging increases. This reduces the skin’s normal insulation and padding, which increase the risk of skin damage and the body’s ability to maintain temperature.
The Two Types of Aging
Intrinsic Aging: Intrinsic aging is also known as the natural aging process. It can be caused by inherited genes, repetitive facial expressions, nutrition, stress, and smoking. The skin’s collagen production begins to slow, resulting in weakened skin structure and wrinkles. Regeneration of new skin cells begins to slow.
Extrinsic Aging: Most premature aging is caused by unprotected sun exposure. Both genetics and unprotected sun exposure work together to increase the effects of aging.
Dr. Cameron Rokhsar has probably trained more doctors in Fraxel and fractional laser procedure than any other doctor. He was also involved in the development of the Fraxel Dual Laser, which is a non-invasive laser procedure used to treat fine line, wrinkles, sun damage, blood vessels, and acne scars.
Fraxel Re:Store Dual Laser: During this procedure, patients first sit with a topical numbing cream before Dr. Rokhsar applies the laser in a quick session. The laser utilizes a wavelength system that penetrates deep into the tissue and creates tiny wounds. Through the process of the body naturally healing itself, collagen and elastin are remodeled, resurfacing the skin, leaving a smoother surface. Patients experience sunburn-like condition will remain for a few days, but recovery is typically fast.
Fraxel Re:pair: This advanced laser uses a CO2 beam to remove microscopic columns of old skin using an ablative, damage and removal process. This results in immediate tissue shrinkage and skin tightening.
Chemical peels can improve the skin tone and address some age-related imperfections. During a treatment, a solution is applied to the face, which causes the top layer of skin to come off. Chemical peels solutions come in different strengths, which are used based on the depth of treatment desired.
Portrait Plasma Skin Resurfacing
Dr. Rokhsar first used the device in 2003, alongside Dr. Richard Fitzpatrick, the first physician to use the device. Topical anesthesia is applied and then the thermal energy based procedure uses controlled thermal damage of the upper layer of old skin while stimulating the creation of collagen fibers.
Dermabrasion is a manual technique which involves controlled surgical scraping to remove scarring or wrinkles. Because it is used to smooth out deeper problems, it is generally only safe for people with fair skin. Those with dark skin colors could experience scarring or discoloration.
Microdermabrasion uses tiny exfoliating crystals to remove superficially damaged skin.
Botos is an injection that enables controlled weakening of facial muscles that cause wrinkles. A small diluted amount of the natural protein called botulinum is administered into the desired area and produces a bacterium that causes botulism. Besides cosmetic reasons, Botox can be used to treat cervical sytonia, writer’s cramp, excessive sweating, migraine headaches, lazy eye, and uncontrolled blinking, to name a few. The effects of Botox usually last three to five months, with results showing within days.
Cosmetic fillers are materials that are injected just below the surface of the skin. These fillers are used to literally fill in wrinkles. This fuller skin looks younger, smoother and firmer looking. There are many different types of fillers in the market, and Dr. Rokhsar will recommend which one best matches your cosmetic goals.
Bovine Collagen: Processed from cow skin, this natural filler was approved in the 1980s and contains collagen which is naturally broken down by the body, which will require injections two to four times per year to maintain results.
Human Collagen Fillers: These injections, made from human cells, became available in 2002. Although more expensive than Bovine injections, it causes dramatically fewer allergic reactions and needs to be repeated every three to six months to maintain results.
Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: This natural skin component is one of the main fundamental parts of the skin’s makeup. Aging slows depletes hyaluronic acid from the skin, but a filler product can be injected and last up to nine months or longer with rare allergic reactions.
Fat Transfer (Fat Injection Filler): A fat transfer is the extraction of fat from one area of the body to another in order to fill in facial lines, wrinkles, acne scar marks and to improve hollow eyes. Fat can be removed from the waistline or inner knees using liposuction, and redistributed to desired areas.